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참고문헌 작성법(Citation): Vancouver (NLM) Style

NLM Style Guide


   ❏  기본 형식     
        [In-Text Citation]
          - Citation number (소괄호(1), 대괄호[2], 위첨자³ 등 사용 가능)
          - Author AA. Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Total Number of Pages.

 1인 이상 저자
  • Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 194 p.
  • Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, Drozda JP Jr, Fletcher BJ, Franklin BA, Gaston H, Greenland P, McBride PE, McGregor CGA, Oldridge NB, Piscatella JC, Rogers FJ. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. 202 p.

    ※  저자와 편집자는 인원 수에 관계 없이 전부 나열하는 것이 원칙
         앞쪽의 저자 3인 나열 후 et al 혹은 and others 표기 가능
 편집자, 번역자
 있는 저서
  • Martin EW. Hazards of medication. 2nd ed. Ruskin A, Napke E, Alexander S, Kelsey FO, Farage DJ, Mills DH, Elkas RW, editors. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1978. 686 p.
  • Stein E. Anorectal and colon diseases: textbook and color atlas of proctology. 1st Engl. ed. Burgdorf WH, translator. Berlin: Springer; c2003. 522 p.
  • Han'guk yagop 100-yon [100-year pharmaceutical industry history]. Seoul (Korea): Yakop Sinmun; 2004. 2 vol. Korean.
 장(Chapter) 또는 책의 
 다른 부분
  • Reed JG, Baxter PM. Library use: handbook for psychology. 3rd ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2003. Chapter 2, Selecting and defining the topic; p. 11-25.
  • Lashley FR. Clinical genetics in nursing practice. 3rd ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company; c2005. Figure 2.5, Meiosis with two autosomal chromosome pairs; p. 27-8.

    ※  챕터에 해당하거나 그림, 도표 등이 수록된 페이지 표기
 저널 논문
  • Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.
  • Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, et al. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.

    ※  출판지, 출판사 정보 생략, vol., no. 등 미표기
    ※  저널명은 약어로 기술
 온라인 저널 논문
  • Happell B. The influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. Aust Electron J Nurs Educ [Internet]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from:

    ※  저자는 인원 수에 관계 없이 전부 나열하는 것이 원칙
         저널의 경우 앞쪽의 저자 3인/6인 나열 후 et al 혹은 and others 표기 가능
 출간 예정 저널
  • Laking G, Lord J, Fischer A. The economics of diagnosis. Health Econ. Forthcoming 2006.
  • Reich T, Gefen A. Effect of trabecular bone loss on cortical strain rate during impact in an in vitro model of avian femur. Biomed Eng Online [Internet]. Forthcoming 2006.
  • van Pelt J, Kamermans M, Levelt CN, van Ooyen A, Ramakers GJA, Roelfsema PR, editors. Development, dynamics, and pathology of neuronal networks: from molecules to functional circuits. Proceedings of the 23rd International Summer School of Brain Research; 2003 Aug 25-29; Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005. 385 p. (Progress in brain research; vol. 147).
  • Rammstedt B, Riemann R, editors. 11th European Conference on Personality; 2002 Jul 21-27; Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Jena, Germany. Lengerich (Germany): Pabst Science Publishers; c2002. 259 p.
 연구비 지원기관에서
 저술, 출간한 보고서
  • Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. 24 p. Report No.: HETA2000-0139-2824.
 연구 수행기관에서 저술,
 연구비 지원기관에서
 출간한 보고서
  • Newberry SJ, editor (Southern California/RAND Evidence-based Practice Center, Los Angeles, CA). Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and glycemic control in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and on inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and osteoporosis. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004 Mar. 145 p. Contract No.: 290-02-0003.

    ※  저자/편자 뒤 소괄호 안에 수행기관 정보 기술
 연구 수행기관에서
 저술, 출간한 보고서
  • Moscovice IS. Rural health networks: evolving organizational forms & functions. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Rural Health Research Center; 2003. 47 p. Grant No.: 032659. Supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
  • Jones DL. The role of physical activity on the need for revision total knee arthroplasty in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee [dissertation]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: University of Pittsburgh; 2001. 436 p.
  • Weisbaum LD. Human sexuality of children and adolescents: a comprehensive training guide for social work professionals [master's thesis]. Long Beach (CA): California State University, Long Beach; 2005. 101 p.

    ※  석사는 [master's thesis], 박사는 [dissertation]으로 표기
  • Myers K, Nguyen C, inventors; 3F Therapeutics, Inc., assignee. Prosthetic heart valve. United States patent US 6,911,043. 2005 Jun 28.
  • The Dow Chemical Company, inventor; The Dow Chemical Company, assignee. Method of producing amines from alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and mixtures thereof. Canadian patent CA 1126248. 1982 Jun 22.
 신문 기사
  • Gaul G. When geography influences treatment options. Washington Post (Maryland Ed.). 2005 Jul 24;Sect. A:12 (col. 1).
  • UnitedHealth-PacifiCare deal hailed, deplored. The (Baltimore) Sun (Weekend Ed.). 2005 Jul 8;Sect. E:1 (col.1).

    ※  신문 제목에 출판지명이 포함되지 않은 경우 별도 표기
 온라인 신문 기사
  • Carey B. Psychiatrists revise the book of human troubles. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Dec 17 [cited 2008 Dec 19];Health:[about 3 p.]. Available from:
  • MeSH Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2003 Apr - [cited 2011 Jul 8]. Available from:
  • Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from:

    ※  URL이 슬래시(/)로 끝날 경우에만 마침표 표기
  • AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from:
  • Fugh-Berman A. PharmedOUT [Internet]. Washington: Georgetown University, Department of Physiology and Biophysics; c2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from:


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      - Citing Medicine, 2nd edition
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